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~War of 1812~




The War of 1812 (1812-1815) was waged between Great Britain and the United States. Americans called
it the Second War of Independence.


The War of 1812 began in the Ohio country as Americans moved onto lands claimed by the British. The British and their Indian allies fought back. The Battle of Tippecanoe led to a formal declaration of war in 1812.


The Americans felt that British support of the Indians was a threat to their expansion. A large part of the American population was afraid of the Indians being incited by the British and massacring their settlements. The American fear was worsened by the arrival of
Chief Tecumseh.


By 1812 British ships had captured almost four hundred American vessels, severly disrupting American export trade. At times Americans were conscripted to serve on British ships. As a result, many Americans called the War of 1812, the "second war for independence".


On June 18, 1812, Congress passed a bill, approving President Madison's declaration of war. Britain tried to delay it's own declaration, in hopes that war could be avoided, until January 9, 1813, but military action started a lot earlier.


Commodore Perry's decisive naval victory at the Battle of Lake Erie and General Harrison's victorious campaign leading up to the Battle of the Thames led to British surrender. The Treaty of Ghent was signed on December 24, 1814 officially ending the war.


Harrison received the rank of Brigadier General during the War of 1812 and commanded the Northwest Army on the Detroit frontier.